This proposition results from the fact that in some studies, higher percentage of Treg cells in peripheral blood was shown. immunological system is now under considerable investigation in many human being cancers. Presumably, Treg cells could be a vital portion of targeted therapies. Program Treg determination could be used to assess the severity of disease and prognosis in children Atipamezole HCl with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. This proposition results from the fact that in some studies, higher percentage of Treg cells in peripheral blood was demonstrated. However, observations confirming these facts are scarce; therefore, extrapolating them to the population of children with hematological malignancies needs to be verified in additional studies. 1. Introduction Despite the quick development of medicine, children are still diagnosed with cancers, which treatment with classical chemotherapy and radiotherapy does not give a chance for the long term remission of the disease. In addition, current treatment implicates severe complications. Therefore, great hopes are bound with the development of such areas of medicine as malignancy genetics and immunooncology. Hence, it was decided to analyze the available literature on the research within the influence of Tregs within the initiation and progression of the most common child years canceracute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) . Generally, acute leukemias are heterogeneous hematological malignancies, varied in terms of their medical picture, phenotype, and recognized genetic aberrations, as well as their final response to the applied treatment. Generation of carcinogenesis in hematological malignancies starts in the bone marrow, and infiltration of the lymphoblast Atipamezole HCl can occur in every cells and important organ of the body . Typical medical manifestations of quick leukemic hyperplasia are massive infiltration in organs and displacement of Vegfa normal blood formation resulting in peripheral pancytopenia . Due to the inhibition of normal hematopoiesis, the most common findings, when diagnosing child years acute leukemia, are accompanying symptoms of anemia, leucopenia, and thrombocytopenia . The most important part of the diagnostic process is definitely immunophenotyping by circulation cytometry, which discloses some main subtypes of leukemia: ALL B-cell or T-cell collection and AML . Except genetic aberration, biochemistry, and microscopic exam, distinguishing the source and differentiation phases of ALL by FC is vital for the prognosis and medical course of the disease [3, 6]. All the above lead to the conclusion that we are ultimately interested in cancer cells rather than in the environment of cancers in the diagnostic and treatment process. Cells of the tumor’s microenvironment are currently under intensive investigation [7, 8]. Residual nonmalignant T- and B-cells are in long term cell-to-cell contact with blasts and are involved in active immune reactions [9, 10]. Because of this, a very interesting clinical query occurs: what kind of physiological dependences is definitely observed between blasts and regular progenitors of normal lines in the bone marrow? Is it the number of immune cells or its disturbed function or rather the general dysregulation Atipamezole HCl of the immune system that is most important for the event of malignancy and final medical effect of the treatment? Regulatory lymphocytes Atipamezole HCl stand clinically as a very interesting subpopulation of cells inside a child’s immune system. For instance, relatively small numbers of Tregs in the blood may condition the event of autoimmune diseases, which due to the increasing incidence belong to lifestyle diseases . Thus, for several years, a growing interest in their biological properties has occurred and clinicians have wondered whether they can also be used in the battle against malignancy [11C13]. All authors agree on the fact that in immunodeficiency syndromes as well as during the period of immunosuppressive therapy, the risk of neoplastic disease event is definitely significantly higher [7, 12, 13]. On the other hand, it is also known that an efficient immune system definitely enhances the chance for long term recovery from a neoplastic disease, by means of therapeutic Atipamezole HCl protocols combining surgical procedures, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. Hence, active antineoplastic immunotherapy is currently part of the standard process in the neoplasms like NHL or acute leukemias with a poor prognosis . A rapid development of this branch of medicine is currently becoming observed. As a result of this, more and more new.